In order to successfully cross-pollinate two different rice plants, the anthers must be removed from the rice floret so that self-pollination does not occur. Here we provide instructions for removing anthers, or emasculating, a rice floret. Also, we provide here instructions for building a vacuum emasculator of your own.
Emasculating Rice Flowers
- How to cross-pollinate rice in the Greenhouse - detailed illustrations of how to emasculate rice flowers in order to perform a cross.
- Hybridization of Crop Plants (PDF) pp. 511-522 by Coffman and Herrera (1980; Amer Soc Agronomony, Madison, WI, USA)
- Rainfed lowland rice improvement by Mackill, D., Coffman, W. R., Garrity, D. P. (1996). pp 173-173
- Closeup pictures of emasculating rice flowers in the McCouch Greenhouse
Vacuum Emasculator Construction Plans
We encourage you to download the Construction Plans or contact the scientists listed below who have received emasculators built from this design. These plans are based on a design detailed in two articles written by Drs. Coffman and Herrara (1) and Dr. Coffman (2), and modified by Nick VanEck of Cornell University.
- Detailed assembly instructions: PDF
- Battery Operated DC diagram
- Plug-in-the-wall AC diagram
- Parts list: PDF
Groups who have built an emasculator
- Mozambique: Maria Estrela Alberto and Lorena Pedro Francisco, Mocfer
- Ghana: Maxwell Asante, West Africa Centre for Crop Improvement (WACCI)
- Uganda: Jimmy Lamo, National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI)
- (1) Herrera, R. M. and W. R. Coffman (1974) Emasculation of rice by vacuum extraction. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Scientific Meeting, Crop Sci. Soc. Philippines, Naga City p. 12-14. (PDF)
- (2) Coffman, W. R. (1979) Genetic evaluation and utilization: Overall Progress. IRRN: 4 (1): 2-3 (PDF)
- (3) Coffman, W. R. and R. M. Herrera (1980) Rice. In: Fehr W.R. and Hadley, H. H. (eds) Hybridization of Crop Plants. Amer Soc Agronomony, Madison, WI, USA, pp 511-522.
- (4) Mackill, D., Coffman, W. R., Garrity, D. P. (1996) Rainfed lowland rice improvement, IRRI.